SSPS:Speech and Language Impaired

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Definition

Speech impairments are disorders of speech sounds, fluency, or voice that interfere with communication, adversely affect performance and/or functioning in the educational environment, and result in the need for exceptional student education. Speech impairments are not primarily the result of factors related to chronological age, gender, culture, ethnicity, or limited English proficiency. Speech impairments are classified into one of three categories:

  • A speech sound disorder is a phonological or articulation disorder that is evidenced by the atypical production of speech sounds characterized by substitutions, distortions, additions, or omissions that interfere with intelligibility. A phonological disorder is an impairment in the system of phonemes and phoneme patterns within the context of spoken language. An articulation disorder is characterized by difficulty in the articulation of speech sounds that may be due to a motoric or structural problem.
  • A fluency disorder is characterized by deviations in continuity, smoothness, rhythm, or effort in spoken communication. It may be accompanied by excessive tension and secondary behaviors, such as struggle and avoidance.
  • A voice disorder is characterized by the atypical production or absence of vocal quality, pitch, loudness, resonance, or duration of phonation.


Language impairments are disorders of language that interfere with communication, adversely affect performance and/or functioning in the student’s typical learning environment, and result in the need for exceptional student education. The language impairment may manifest in significant difficulties affecting listening comprehension, oral expression, social interaction, reading, writing, or spelling. A language impairment is not primarily the result of factors related to chronological age, gender, culture, ethnicity, or limited English proficiency.


A language impairment is a disorder in one or more of the basic learning processes involved in understanding or in using spoken or written language. These include:

1. Phonology. Phonology is defined as the sound systems of a language and the linguistic conventions of a language that guide the sound selection and sound combinations used to convey meaning;

2. Morphology. Morphology is defined as the system that governs the internal structure of words and the construction of word forms;

3. Syntax. Syntax is defined as the system governing the order and combination of words to form sentences,

4. Semantics. Semantics is defined as the system that governs the meanings of words and sentences; and

5. Pragmatics. Pragmatics is defined as the system that combines language components in functional and socially appropriate communication.


Age

Ages served: 3-22. Students may be served by the preschool program on their third birthday. They must be five 5 years old on or before September 1 to be eligible for the kindergarten program and may continue their education through the year they turn eighteen 18. Students over the age of 18 who have not met TIEP objectives and/or met requirements for graduation with a standard diploma will be individually considered for continued services at the annual TIEP conference based on their ability to successfully achieve program goals.